Technology Definition: A Comprehensive Overview

Technology Definition: A Comprehensive Overview

Technology has evolved into a vast and dynamic field of science, enabling humans to create endless possibilities.

John Kenneth Galbraith redefined America’s perception of itself in his 1967 book The New Industrial State and gave a Technology Definition:

“Technology is more than mere scientific knowledge applied to practical tasks.”

Technology has revolutionized top-of-the-line automobiles, Space Science, and surgical techniques to Artificial Intelligence and innovative robotics.

It continually expands as science progresses, promising even more exciting breakthroughs and advancements in the future.

The impact of technology on intelligence is a debated topic. While some argue that it decreases our abilities, others believe that it expands our access to information and enhances our learning potential.

Agenda for this article on The Technology Definition:

Etymology of Technology

Did you know that the term technology is derived from the Greek word technologia, meaning the study of art, craft, and skills? Simply put, technology is the practical application of scientific knowledge in various industries. It involves the use of specialized tools, machines, and systems to accomplish specific tasks. But, contrary to popular belief, technology is not limited to just electronic gadgets like computers and smartphones.

It encompasses something as simple as the wheel, which revolutionized transportation in ancient times. From basic stone tools to the advent of the internet, technology has allowed us to shape the physical world and the world of knowledge to meet our needs and wants.

Definition of Technology

Technology is the application of scientific knowledge to achieve a particular goal or create applications that are used in industry or daily life. So, if we use scientific knowledge to achieve a goal, we are using technology.  Technology improves every aspect of human life, making it easier and more diverse. Though technological advances are largely seen positively, some people see them negatively.

In today’s world, technology is everywhere. We use it for communication, information, work, and to entertain ourselves. Technology has transformed the way we live, work, and play, and it’s growing faster than ever.

Top Tech Giant given Technology Definition as:

Emmanuel G. Mesthene defined Technology in his 1970 book, Technological Change: Its Impact on Man and Society:

“We define technology as the organization of knowledge for the achievement of practical purposes.”


Thomas P. Hughes’s Technology Definition in his 2004 book, Human-Built World: How to Think about Technology and Culture

“Technology is not only messy and complex, It is also difficult to define and understand.”


Brian Arthur in his 2009 book, The Nature of Technology: What It Is and How It Evolves gives the Technology Definition as:

“Technology serves as a tool to accomplish human goals and it can take various forms, such as methods, processes, devices, or even intangible concepts. Regardless of its nature, technology always serves as a means to fulfill a human purpose.”


Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Richard Rhodes in his 1999 book, Visions of Technology: A Century Of Vital Debate About Machines Systems And The Human World

“When we ask a friend for a definition of technology today, they might instinctively refer to machines, engineering marvels, and the wonders of science. This uncertainty surrounding the boundaries between science and technology underscores the complexity of the subject and the vast opportunities it presents.”


Most readable historian Joel Mokyr in his 1990 book, Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress gives Technology Definition as

“It is a mindful application of information to the production process. This application aims to increase efficiency, leading to either the production of the same output with fewer resources or the creation of improved and innovative products.”


University of Maryland historian Robert Friedel in his 2007 book, A Culture of Improvement: Technology and the Western Millennium reports the Technology Definition as:

“Technology is not solely about gadgets and gizmos; it is the fusion of knowledge and tools that empower us to navigate the complexities of life.”


Ian Barbour  In his insightful book “Ethics in an Age of Technology” (1993), delves into the concept of technology, defining it as

“Technology is a systematic application of organized knowledge to practical tasks. This application is carried out through the collaboration of both people and machines within well-structured systems.”


Internet entrepreneur and venture capitalist Peter Thiel in Zero to One: Notes on How to Build the Future (2014) says:

“Technology encompasses not only conventional methods but also innovative approaches that enable us to carry out tasks with increased effectiveness and efficiency.”


David M. Kaplan defined Technology in his book Ricoeur’s Critical Theory (2003)

“Technology systems operate within the societal context of organizations that develop, utilize, and oversee these technologies. The impact of these technologies extends beyond mere tools and objects, as they have the power to reshape human activity patterns, institutions, culture, and even the environment. Technology forms a symbiotic relationship with humanity, where each entity influences and is influenced by the other. This reciprocal interaction occurs through the creation of intricate networks of social relations, which both structure and enable societal life.”


Types of Technology?

Technology has seamlessly integrated itself into every aspect of our daily lives. From the moment we open our eyes in the morning to the moment we close them at night, we are constantly engaging with a multitude of technological advancements.

However, not all technology is created equal and each serves a unique purpose in making our lives more efficient and productive. By gaining a deeper understanding of the different types of technology, you can unlock their potential benefits and how they can be harnessed to improve your daily life.

Technology is divided into six categories: Communication, Electrical, Energy, Mechanical, Medical, and Transportation.

      1. Communication: Communication technology includes revolutionary mediums such as television, the internet, and mobile phones, which have brought people closer together than ever before.
      2. Electrical: Electrical technology consists of computers, circuitry, artificial intelligence, software, audio, and visual technology, all of which facilitate our day-to-day interactions and activities.
      3. Energy: Energy technology includes solar panels, wind turbines, and batteries, which are powering our world sustainably.
      4. Mechanical: Mechanical technology has revolutionized the way we manufacture and build new infrastructure.
      5. Medical: Medical technology encompasses diagnostics, pharmaceuticals, surgical tools, and monitoring devices that have transformed healthcare and saved countless lives.
      6. Transportation: Transportation technology has, without a doubt, made the world a smaller, more connected place, with innovations such as GPS systems and flight technology that enable us to explore the world like never before.

Does Technology Make Us Stupid?

The topic of whether technology is making us less intelligent is a hotly debated issue, with passionate arguments on both sides. Critics often argue that digital advancements are causing us to lose focus and decreasing our ability to execute even basic tasks.

Our forefathers solely relied on their skills and intellect to survive and succeed, however, we are solely dependent on technology. It cannot be denied that excessive usage of digital technology can lead to emotional problems including depression and anxiety.

One study published in the journal PLOS ONE in 2014, titled “The Impact of Digital Technology on Psychological Well-Being: A View from the Perspective of Positive Psychology”, also suggests that tech has a negative impact on the human brain.

As per the renowned social/behavioral expert Anthony Chemero from the University of Cincinnati, no scientific evidence shows technology harms our biological cognitive abilities.

Technology has revolutionized the way we learn, expanded our access to information, and enabled us to communicate with people living in every corner of the world.

The crux lies in how we use it.

By skillfully navigating this digital world with adequate literacy, striking a balance, and utilizing technology as a stepping stone for intellectual growth, we can reap its rewards.

Top Technology Quotes to Inspire You:

As the renowned scientist Thomas A. Edison, once stated failure is simply a stepping stone on the path to success, as he famously said:

“I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.”


According to Daniel Bell American Sociologist

“Technology like art is a soaring exercise of the human imagination.”


According to Steve Jobs, Co-founder of Apple

“Technology is nothing. What’s important is that you have faith in people, that they’re good and smart, and if you give them tools, they’ll do wonderful things with them.”


UX Geek and the Brain behind Home Sean Gerety reminds us that

“It’s not just the technology itself that impresses others, but rather the experience we create through its use.”


American Security Consultant Frank W. Abagnale’s Technology Definition

“Technology that has made our lives easier has also made it easier for criminals to exploit us.”


Marshall McLuhan  a visionary in the field of technology, predicts that

“Those who master the future of technology will need to possess both a light-heartedness and intelligence, as machines effortlessly conquer the mundane and dull tasks of our world.”

Bottom Line:

Technology is a powerful force that continues to shape our lives and society. With its vast potential, it is important to understand its definition, types, and impact. By embracing technology mindfully and using it as a tool for growth and innovation, we can create a brighter future. So, let’s harness the power of technology and navigate the ever-evolving landscape of progress.



As a subject matter expert, I would love to hear your input on the topic of Technology Definition. Your insights will not only enhance our understanding but also encourage discussion.


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